Swimming World August 2021 Presents – Maximizing Swimming Velocity Part 4 – Minimizing Arm Entry Phase Time In Backstroke and Breaststroke

Swimming World August 2021 - Swimming Technique Concepts - Maximizing Swimming Velocity Part 4 - Minimizing Arm Entry Phase Time In Backstroke and Breaststroke
FIG. 2 > Backstrokers often add time to their arm entry by flexing at the elbow so that the hand enters behind the head instead of behind the shoulder (yellow line).

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The Swimming World August 2021 Issue Presents

Swimming Technique Concepts:
Maximizing Swimming Velocity Part 4 – Minimizing Arm Entry Phase Time In Backstroke and Breaststroke

By Rod Havriluk

 

As shown in a previous “Swimming Technique Concepts” article (SW June 2021), when swimming velocity increases, the time of all four stroke cycle phases decreases. Conversely, swimmers decrease the time of all four phases of the stroke cycle to increase swimming velocity. Of all four phases, the greatest decrease was in the entry phase. A swimmer who can further decrease the entry phase time will be able to further increase swimming velocity.

Havriluk Fig1

FIG. 1 >The graph shows the time for the four phases of the stroke cycle in backstroke and breaststroke from two studies.

The graph in Fig. 1 shows the time for the four phases of the stroke cycle in backstroke (Chollet, Seifert & Carter, 2008) and breaststroke (Leblanc, Seifert, Baudry & Chollet, 2005) for elite male swimmers. (The breaststroke glide phase is the equivalent of the arm entry phase in the other three strokes, as it occurs between the end of the arm recovery and the beginning of the pull. The inward and outward sculling motions of breaststroke are the equivalents of the pull and push phase of the other three strokes.)

Swimming World August 2021 - Swimming Technique Concepts - Maximizing Swimming Velocity Part 4 - Minimizing Arm Entry Phase Time In Backstroke and Breaststroke

FIG. 2 > Backstrokers often add time to their arm entry by flexing at the elbow so that the hand enters behind the head instead of behind the shoulder (yellow line).

 

BACKSTROKE ENTRY PHASE
Backstrokers often increase the arm entry phase with two ineffective motions:
1. Entering the hand behind the head instead of behind the shoulder (Fig. 2), and
2. Moving the hand primarily sideways instead of primarily downward after it submerges (Fig. 3).

The underwater front-view video image of the backstroker in Fig. 3 shows that he moves his hand primarily sideways instead of downwards on the entry phase. He required 3-tenths of a second from when the hand submerged until the hand was below the shoulder and in position to generate propulsion.


To read more about minimizing arm entry phase time, complete with charts and illustrations,
Click here to download the full issue of Swimming World August 2021 now!


Dr. Rod Havriluk is a sport scientist and consultant who specializes in swimming technique instruction and analysis. His newest ebooks in the “Approaching Perfect Swimming” series are “Optimal Stroke Technique” and “Swimming Without Pain,” and are available at swimmingtechnology.com. Contact Rod through info@swimmingtechnology.com. All scientific documentation relating to this article, including scientific principles, studies and research papers, can be provided upon demand.

 

Swimming World August 2021 - Torri Huske - Female High School Swimmer of the Year - COVER[PHOTO BY PETER H. BICK]

 


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SWIMMING WORLD AUGUST 2021 FEATURES

012 | READY FOR A NEW CHALLENGE
by David Rieder
Torri Huske finished her high school career by setting national high school records in the 100 yard fly and 200 IM and by being named Swimming World’s Female High School Swimmer of the Year for the second time (2019, 2021). The 18-year-old senior from Yorktown High School (Arlington, Va.) will be moving on to Stanford in the fall, but first, she set an American record in the 100 meter fly at U.S. Trials that earned her a trip to Tokyo to compete in her first Olympics.

014 | TAKING IT TO THE NEXT LEVEL
by Dan D’Addona
Everything appears to be OK for Norman North (Okla.) High School senior Aiden Hayes. He set two national high school records (100 fly and 50 free) this past season. He competed and gained experience at the U.S. Olympic Trials as the fastest 18-year-old in the country in butterfly. And he was named Swimming World’s Male High School Swimmer of the Year.

016 | CREAM OF THE CROP
by David Rieder and Andy Ross
There were some mighty fast swimmers who finished the 2020-21 high school season right behind Swimming World’s Female and Male High School Swimmers of the Year, Torri Huske and Aiden Hayes. Of the four runners-up, two of them are underclassmen and will be returning for more fast swimming in 2021-22.

018 | TOP HIGH SCHOOL RECRUITS
by Chandler Brandes
Swimming World takes a look at the swimmers it considers to be the 10 best high school recruits—both male and female—from the Class of 2021 and where they’ll be attending college in the fall.

021 | NUTRITION: WHAT TO EAT BEFORE THE “BIG RACE”
by Dawn Weatherwax
To reach your swimming goals, it is important to know what to eat—at what times and in what amounts. It is different for everyone, but very important to master.

022 | ISHOF: THE U.S. OLYMPIC TRIALS—DONNA DeVARONA AND THE PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE OF WOMEN’S SWIMMING
by Bruce Wigo
At the recent U.S. Olympic Trials, there was one moment that linked the past with the present and future of swimming like no other. It came when Donna de Varona presented Olympic qualification medals to Katie Grimes, the youngest member of the 2021 Olympic swimming team, and three-time Olympian Katie Ledecky.

025 | ONE OF THE GREATEST SPRINTERS OF ALL TIME
by John Lohn
The 2000 Olympic Games in Sydney are widely remembered for the home-nation success of Australia, which was spearheaded by teenage sensation Ian Thorpe. But the Games Down Under also served as a redemptive locale for the Netherlands’ Inge de Bruijn, who used the stage to define herself as one of the sport’s legends.

028 | MENTAL PREP: BEFORE THE BEEP WITH KATE DOUGLASS
by Shoshanna Rutemiller

COACHING

030 | SPECIAL SETS: TRAINING KAYLA WILSON
by Michael J. Stott
Coach Richard Hunter of TIDE Swimming in Virginia Beach, Va. discusses goals and workouts for one of his top swimmers, Kayla Wilson, a rising senior at Norfolk Academy who recently committed to Stanford for fall 2022.

034 | SWIMMING TECHNIQUE CONCEPTS: MAXIMIZING SWIMMING VELOCITY (Part 4)—MINIMIZING THE ARM ENTRY PHASE TIME IN BACKSTROKE AND BREASTSTROKE
by Rod Havriluk
To minimize the arm entry phase time in backstroke, a swimmer must quickly move the hand downward directly behind and below the shoulder. Minimizing the arm entry phase (glide phase) in breaststroke requires precise control of the timing between the finish of the kick and the beginning of the pull. A decrease in the non-propulsive entry phase decreases the time for a stroke cycle, increases stroke rate and increases swimming velocity.

038 | SPECIAL SETS: ENERGY SYSTEM TRAINING
by Michael J. Stott
George Heidinger, former USA Swimming National Team High Performance Consultant and owner of Pikes Peak Athletics (Colo.), specializes in long-term athlete development. As such, he is well-schooled in the science of energy systems and shares some sample sets he has given to rising high school senior Quintin McCarty and his PPA senior teammates.

040 | A COACHES’ GUIDE TO ENERGY SYSTEMS (Part 3): WHILE THEY’RE YOUNG
by Michael J. Stott
In Part 3 of our series on energy systems, two age group coaches—one from Clovis, Calif. and one from Richmond, Va.—share how they inform and guide their younger athletes through energy system training.

043 | Q&A WITH COACH NICHOLAS ASKEW
by Michael J. Stott

044 | HOW THEY TRAIN: MILES SIMON
by Michael J. Stott

TRAINING

033 | DRYSIDE TRAINING: GOLD MEDAL WORKOUT
by J.R. Rosania

JUNIOR SWIMMER

036 | GOLDMINDS: 10 GREAT REASONS TO GET BACK IN THE POOL
by Wayne Goldsmith

47 | UP & COMERS: BRIAN HAMILTON
by Shoshanna Rutemiller

COLUMNS

008 | A VOICE FOR THE SPORT

011 | DID YOU KNOW: ABOUT ETHELDA BLEIBTREY?

046 | HASTY HIGH POINTERS

048 | GUTTERTALK

049 | PARTING SHOT

 

 

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