Swimming World Presents -Tarnished Gold: East Germany’s Kristin Otto – Sponsored By S.R. Smith

Kristin Otti
Kristin Otto

Swimming World Presents -Tarnished Gold: East Germany’s Kristin Otto – Sponsored By S.R. Smith

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Tarnished Gold: East Germany’s Kristin Otto

By John Lohn

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East Germany’s Kristin Otto will long be remembered as a highly decorated athlete, and for turning in one of the greatest Olympic outings in history, winning six gold medals at the 1988 Games. But because of the links to her and performance-enhancing drugs, what she accomplished—before and in Seoul—will always be tainted.

The image is iconic in Olympic lore. As he crossed the finish line, index finger pointing to the sky, Canadian Ben Johnson was the most-celebrated athlete on the planet. He had just won the 1988 Olympic title in the 100-meter dash, his winning time of 9.79 almost impossible to grasp. How could a human run that fast? It was a legitimate question, and one asked with significant skepticism.

An answer arrived within days, and the Seoul Games fell under a tent of controversy. Johnson, in what was an unsurprising revelation to those who raced against him, had tested positive for the use of an anabolic steroid, and was stripped of his gold medal. Journalists, who were hardly stunned by the news they would chase, immediately worked to cover the story of Johnson’s doping violation, while Johnson boarded a flight out of South Korea.

The news of Johnson’s positive test coincided with the last days of the swimming competition, where two storylines stood out. Among the men, Matt Biondi’s march to seven medals—including five gold, a silver and a bronze—drew comparisons to what Mark Spitz achieved at the 1972 Olympics in Munich. Although Biondi did not match Spitz’s perfection, he became just the second swimmer to tally seven medals in a single Games.

In women’s action, East Germany’s Kristin Otto occupied the spotlight, and headlined her nation’s dominant showing by setting an Olympic standard for individual success. During the eight-day meet, Otto was perfect, her four individual triumphs complemented by a pair of relay victories. If the program had included a women’s 800 freestyle relay, as the men’s schedule did, she almost certainly would have equaled Spitz’s iconic effort from 16 years earlier. Still, her six gold medals set a record for female success at the Olympic Games, a standard that has not been equaled.

SUSPICIONS FOLLOWED
But like Johnson, suspicions followed Otto, who was pegged at a young age to attend one of East Germany’s prestigious sports schools. From the early 1970s through the late 1980s, East Germany was the dominant country in the pool, destroying the opposition at the European Championships, World Championships and Olympic Games…and all other competitions in between. Even without official proof in the form of positive doping tests, there was little doubt unethical practices were at play.

During the first years of the 1970s, the German Democratic Republic was a modest factor on the global stage. Yet, by the 1973 World Championships, they became a superpower, and that status would remain for the next decade-and-a-half. How did such an ascension take place? It wasn’t difficult to recognize the reason: Fingers pointed to chemistry.

Not only was East Germany’s sudden and widespread success enough to activate prolonged skepticism, so were the physical characteristics of the athletes: abnormal musculature, deep voices, acne-covered skin. It was also said that the country’s systematic-doping program was so specific, that athletes were monitored prior to competition and removed from action if there was the slightest possibility they would test positive for a performance-enhancing substance.

Otto was used to the allegations levied against her and her teammates.

“I have never knowingly taken any banned substances,” Otto said. “I have no knowledge of ever having taken something to help my performance.”

There is a key word in Otto’s statement: knowingly. Throughout the duration of East Germany’s doping program, the teenage girls who were used as pharmaceutical guinea pigs and pin cushions simply did as they were told. Swallow this pill. Take this injection. Follow this workout. And…do not ask questions.

Kornelia Ender did not question the system. Neither did Barbara Krause. Petra Thumer followed the directives that were prescribed. Petra Schneider was obedient, too. And because these women could not say no—or have their careers instantly washed away—they set dozens of world records and enjoyed vast international success.

A MAJOR FORCE
The same could be said for Otto. After being identified as a future star, it did not take long for her to emerge as a major force. As a 16-year-old at the 1982 World Championships, she notched her first international success, capturing three gold medals, highlighted by a solo title in the 100 backstroke. The next year’s European Championships brought three more medals, but the opportunity to shine on the biggest sporting stage was delayed.

In retaliation for the United States-led boycott of the 1980 Olympic Games in Moscow, 14 Eastern Bloc countries decided to skip the 1984 Games in Los Angeles. Leading this charge were the Soviet Union and East Germany, and the decision meant Otto had to wait an additional four years to etch her name in Olympic history.

Although 1984 was a loss for Otto on the Olympic front, she made the most of the campaign by setting a world record in the 200 meter freestyle and winning five medals at the Friendship Games, a replacement meet for the Olympics that provided boycotting nations the chance to experience some level of competition. In 1985, though, Otto was out of the pool for most of the year, sidelined by an injury that left her in a neck brace for nine months.

However, by the 1986 World Championships in Madrid, Otto had regained her pre-injury form and set the foundation for two years in the future—the 1988 Games in Seoul. At the World Champs, Otto collected six medals, four of them gold, with individual titles earned in the 100 freestyle and 200 individual medley. Her triumph in the 100 free arrived in world-record time, and the mark endured as the global standard for more than five years.

A year later, Otto was just as superb, as revealed in the five-gold exhibition at the European Championships that included solo wins in the 100 freestyle, 100 backstroke and 100 butterfly. There was no doubt she was prepared to make her Olympic debut, and her ability to win international titles in a variety of events received considerable acclaim.

Wolfgang Richter, East Germany’s head coach in Seoul, admired Otto’s mental approach, especially in the face of great pressure to excel: “She’s the best because she works harder than the rest,” Richter said. “She’s tough (in the mind). She cannot stand to lose.”

SUCCESS IN SEOUL
Her long Olympic wait over, Otto immediately shined in Seoul. In the first event of the meet, she won the 100 freestyle by more than a half-second. That win was followed by decisive victories in the 100 backstroke and as a member of the East German 400 freestyle relay. The last three days of action produced one gold medal per day, with wins in the 100 butterfly and 50 freestyle sandwiching her contribution on the victorious 400 medley relay.

In a flash, Otto possessed six gold medals in as many events. There were no world records—which was a slight surprise—but Otto was an individual winner in three different strokes, an effort that prompted five-time United States Olympic coach Don Gambril to compare her to American legend Tracy Caulkins. It was an odd comparison for a U.S. coach to make, considering how Team USA—particularly Shirley Babashoff—had long questioned the legitimacy of East Germany’s success.

Otto simply took the end of her Olympiad in stride, noting that she had exceeded expectations and would fondly look back at the week. When asked about her involvement with doping, she pointed to the fact that she had never tested positive and was one of the most-tested athletes in the world.

Personally, I never gave much thought to this because it would have been too much of a burden if you think of a gold in every event,” Otto said. “I’m 22, and that is not so young anymore in this sport, so I have a very difficult decision to make (concerning retirement). I’m sure we will be very popular (back home). People will stop us in the street. But I’m also sure this will not change my life.”

Upon reflection, Otto spurned retirement for a year after Seoul. In what proved to be the bow on her international career, she won four medals at the 1989 European Championships, including a gold in the 100 backstroke. She followed her competitive days by pursuing a journalism degree and has been a longtime television journalist in Germany.

SECRETS REVEALED
What Otto has not been able to avoid in retirement are links between her and performance-enhancing drugs. Upon the fall of the Berlin Wall in the early 1990s, a plethora of East German secrets were revealed, among them the details of the country’s systematic-doping program, known formally as State Plan 14:25.

In documents recovered from the Stasi, the East German secret police, Otto’s name was listed among those supplied with anabolic steroids. Even when presented with this evidence, Otto denied her knowledge of the process. Yet, others have copped to the program of which they were a part, including Rica Reinisch, a three-time gold medalist at the 1980 Olympics in Moscow. In addition to admitting that she was supplied performance-enhancing drugs by her coaches and East German medical personnel, Reinisch has criticized Otto for not admitting the obvious, and what had been documented.

“When she claims she cleaned up in Seoul without taking anything, then I can only say she didn’t win six golds by drinking buttermilk,” Reinisch once said.

A 1993 inductee to the International Swimming Hall of Fame, Otto’s exhibit now includes a doping disclaimer. The same disclaimer is attached to the displays of Ender, Krause, Thumer and Ulrike Richter, among others. It reads: “In a German court of law, after this swimmer was inducted into the International Swimming Hall of Fame, team officials confessed to administering performance-enhancing drugs to this swimmer, who, therefore, obtained an illegal and unfair advantage over other athletes.”

FOREVER CONNECTED TO DOPING
In this age of enhanced depth, the notion of another female athlete matching Kristin Otto’s accomplishment and winning six Olympic gold medals—four of them individually—is unlikely. When Michael Phelps won his eight gold medals in Beijing, he relied on two miracles to keep perfection alive.

And the questions surrounding Otto remain: How much did steroids aid her? What could she have achieved through only her natural talent? These are questions that will never be answered. Instead, she’ll be forever connected to doping. More, her Seoul link with Johnson will keep the two inseparable. The difference? He was caught. She got away.

“I’ve been facing (doping questions) for years,” Otto once said. “It is nothing new for me. Unfortunately, I can no longer rule (doping) out. However, I cannot imagine it because I was one of the most checked athletes in the world at the time.”

Doubt, however, will always linger.


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Swimming World Magazine February 2021 Issue

FEATURES

012 THE PRIDE OF GIRLS’ POLO IN THE GATEWAY CITY
by Michael Randazzo
When COVID-19 lockdowns last spring stopped polo, Rob Peglar and Abby VerMeer didn’t hesitate: they focused on getting girls water polo untracked in the Gateway City. The result: the St. Louis Lions, the city’s first all-girls team.

014 ALL FOR ONE AND ONE FOR ALL
by Dan D’Addona
The popular motto of The Musketeers, built on supporting each other as well as the group, is just one of many reasons why the University of Texas remains among the strongest in men’s college swimming and diving.

020 READY FOR A BREAKTHROUGH
by Andy Ross
Melanie Margalis is an Olympic relay gold medalist and a three-time relay champion at Worlds, but a podium finish in an individual event has eluded her on the world’s biggest stage. After ranking No. 1 in the 400 IM and No. 3 in the shorter medley for 2020, her turn to win a medal for the United States could take place this year in Tokyo.

022 PERSEVERANCE AND HARD  WORK PAY OFF
by David Rieder
After not qualifying for Australia’s Olympic team in 2012, Emma McKeon was ready to quit…but over the next several months, she had a change of heart and understood what was necessary to compete at a higher level. Since then, she has become a significant international force, a consistent podium presence and one of the world’s most impactful relay swimmers.

026 TAKEOFF TO TOKYO: TARNISHED GOLD
by John Lohn
East Germany’s Kristin Otto will long be remembered as a highly decorated athlete, and for turning in one of the greatest Olympic outings in history, winning six gold medals at the 1988 Games. But because of the links to her and performance-enhancing drugs, what she accomplished—before and in Seoul—will always be tainted.

029 WHO “SHOT” THE SWIMMERS? (Part 2)
by Bruce Wigo
Shortly after the 1936 Olympics in a lab in Boston, Harold “Doc” Edgerton, an electrical engineering professor at MIT, began tinkering with equipment that would change the way science explains natural phenomena—and with it, the art of aquatic sports photography—forever.

032 NUTRITION: TO BE THE BEST, YOU NEED TO EAT THE BEST!
by Dawn Weatherwax
Each year really does build onto another—nutrition is an imperative part of the process, even at an early age.

COACHING

016 SELLING PROCESS TO SWIMMERS (Part 2)
by Michael J. Stott
In 1993, psychologist Anders Ericsson wrote that greatness wasn’t born, but grown. Fifteen years later, author Malcolm Gladwell suggested that it takes roughly 10,000 hours of practice to achieve mastery in a skill or field. Known by the term, “process,” swim coaches use that learning curve to improve the performance of their swimmers.

036 SWIMMING TECHNIQUE CONCEPTS: FREESTYLE TECHNIQUE FOR SPRINT AND DISTANCE (Part 2)
by Rod Havriluk
Optimal freestyle technique for sprint and distance is identical with respect to the arm motion throughout the stroke cycle, but the arm coordination is different. While a swimmer can swim a wide range of velocities with opposition coordination, a swimmer will only achieve his/her fastest velocity with superposition coordination.

040 SPECIAL SETS: TRAINING THE PROFESSIONAL ATHLETE—THEN AND NOW
by Michael J. Stott
In his lengthy career, Gregg Troy has mentored athletes of all ages and abilities, which has given him a unique perspective of how to prepare post-college grads for excellence at the international level.

042 Q&A WITH COACH JOE PLANE
by Michael J. Stott

044 HOW THEY TRAIN ANDREW IVERSON
by Michael J. Stott

TRAINING

035 DRYSIDE TRAINING: TIME TO GET STRONG…AGAIN!
by J.R. Rosania

JUNIOR SWIMMER

038 GOLDMINDS: JUST GO WITH THE FLOW
by Wayne Goldsmith
How can you control—and even master—your emotions? The answer is by learning to become a more resilient swimmer. Here’s how…

046 UP & COMERS: RICHARD POPLAWSKI
by Shoshanna Rutemiller

COLUMNS

010 A VOICE FOR THE SPORT

011 DID YOU KNOW: 

ABOUT FREDERICK LANE?

047  GUTTERTALK

049 PARTING SHOT

 

Swimming World is now partnered with the International Swimming Hall of Fame. To find out more, visit us at ishof.org

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