IWD: Nancy Hogshead-Makar, Rape Survivor & Fighter For An End To Abuse in Sport


International Women’s Day (IWD)

To mark International Women’s Day, Swimming World will roll out a series of features this Sunday to highlight the achievements and work of  pathfinders in swimming and raising issues that continue to have a massive impact on women in sport.

Here we take a look at the ongoing work of Nancy Hogshead-Makar with victims of abuse in sport. We recall the recognition the 1984 Olympic 100m freestyle champion has received for her campaigning and advocacy of late beyond hearing what she had to say when AFP caught up with her to celebrate IWD.

Three years after the trauma of being raped by a stranger while jogging outside a university campus, American swimmer Nancy Hogshead lit up the 1984 Olympic Games in Los Angeles by winning three gold medals and a silver.

Today, the 57-year-old lawyer, mother and activist devotes her life towards the fight for gender equality and the battle against sexual abuse in sport.

In an interview with AFP ahead of International Women’s Day, Nancy Hogshead-Makar says she remains “unrealistically optimistic” about her work and life in general. She said:

“I guess you have to be in order to try to win in the Olympics and try to address sexual abuse in sports. They’re pretty audacious goals.”

The day before the interview, Hogshead-Makar had been working until the early hours drafting a letter to the US Congress about bipartisan legislation that calls for tougher protections for amateur athletes against abuse by coaches and employees.

Hogshead-Makar’s work ethic mirrors the dedication that formed the cornerstone of her swimming career — from the age of 11, she would spend four hours a day churning the waters of her training pool.

“My winning formula was to compete,” Hogshead-Makar said. “That’s how I was successful in life.”

After retiring from swimming, the Iowa native channelled her energy into helping others. After becoming a lawyer, she focused on campaigning for gender equality and combating sexual abuse in sport.


Nancy Hogshead at Duke in her student and swimmer days – Photo Courtesy: Champion Women

For decades, Hogshead-Makar did not talk publicly about the traumatic events that occurred in the autumn of 1981 when she was 19.


Who was to blame? “… while running alone…” reads the headline of a rape report – Chronicle screenshot from the Champion Women video

While out jogging outside the campus of Duke University in North Carolina, she was raped by a stranger.

“I felt profoundly broken. I felt forsaken by God. I was scared all the time,” said Hogshead-Makar, who suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder for months after the attack.

“I thought that I could overcome it by willing it away.”

Hogshead-Makar said she benefited from two things that many sexual assault victims don’t receive. She said:

“Number one, everybody around me believed that it happened. Number two, people believed in the depth of my emotional harm. Nobody told me, ‘Just get over it’.”

With help and support from loved ones, coaches, Duke faculty and administrators, she rebuilt her life but kept the attack private.

Former Olympic swimmer Nancy Hogshead-Makar has dedicated her life to gender equality while fighting sexual abuse in sport. She says:

“I didn’t talk about it for 20 years because I would have started to cry; I wasn’t quite healed enough.”

Eventually, a friend and mentor, the human rights activist Richard Lapchick, suggested that talking publicly about her experience as a rape survivor could be a way to help others. Hogshead-Makar recalls:

“He said, ‘You really need to start talking about your own experience’. And he was right. It made me a better advocate. My hope is that other, older women with great lives will disclose this part of their story.”

Harnessing Experience To Advocacy For A Safe Sports Environment


Nancy Hogshead Makar Photo Courtesy: Champion Women

In her efforts to foster change in Olympic sports in the United States, she’s drawing from her experience as an elite swimmer.

Hogshead-Makar believes that the nature of competitive swimming fosters equality:

“It’s no coincidence that some of the best gender equity advocates come from the sport of swimming because we see equality. I trained almost exclusively with guys. I was accustomed to having things be fair. We swam lap-for-lap and we lifted weight-for-weight.”

There have however been cases of questionable behavior.

One of Hogshead-Makar’s former coaches, Mitch Ivey, was suspended from the sport for life in 2013 after evidence emerged of improper sexual relationships with multiple swimmers he had coached. Says Hogshead-Makar, founder and CEO of the advocacy group Champion Women:

“The boundaries are just not well spelled out the way they are for counselors, religious leaders or lawyers or teachers,”

In 2012, the United States Olympic Committee ordered all its member federations to ban intimate relationships between coaches and athletes, regardless of age and consent.

Hogshead-Makar, however, says the message still needs to be reinforced. She estimates that only 0.5 percent of swimmers and 1.4 percent of their parents have received adequate training to safeguard against the problem.

To raise awareness on the issue, Hogshead-Makar is working on a social media campaign with Child USA, a non-profit which works to end child abuse and neglect in the United States.

She was also heavily involved in the effort to set up the US Center for SafeSport, the first independent organization to combat sexual and physical violence in Olympic sports, which launched in 2017.

Recent Swimming World coverage of recognition for the work of Nancy Hogshead-Makar and team and the difficult issues she calls on us all to face:



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Jennifer Parks
Jennifer Parks
4 years ago

Brava, Nancy, You have been a light in the dark areas of our sport. Have a former friend, who struggled with coaches’ relationships with her; she took her own life. As A Review Chair for many years, after having been a coach at some colleges and U.’s, I, too, was flabbergasted to discover the extent of sexual abuse by some male coaches, of girls and young women. I was ignored, when I reported such abuse. Nancy gave me hope that it could be stopped! Again, brava, Nancy Hogshea-Makar, a real heroine in sport!

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